Future Of Computer Science In Pakistan Essay In English

Many prospective students have a limited understanding of what is computer science. While proficiency in computer programming is an essential skill, computer science students deal with the fundamental nature of computation, what can and cannot be computed, and how efficiently a computation can be accomplished by a machine. They study how to build computer systems (computer architecture), how to make machines think (artificial intelligence), how to build computers that can see (computer vision), how to design software that works seamlessly from different locations (computer networks and distributed systems), how to model complex problems (modelling and simulation) and how to design more efficient computing algorithms (theory of computation).

The Department's highly research-active faculty encourages undergraduate students to be involved in their research work. Research opportunities focus both on fundamental research in theory of computation, computer networks, computer vision, data mining, software engineering, artificial intelligence and robotics, as well as on projects of practical socio-economic significance, such as building systems to communicate relevant information to farmers, designing mapping solutions for rural areas and building record keeping solutions for the judicial system. Due to our fledging PhD programme, undergraduate students can avail opportunities to work on research with graduate students. The Department also offers the option of continuing for a Master's degree, through its 4+1 programme, which allows the completion of both BS and MS degrees in five years.

A Computer Science degree is excellent preparation for the job market of the future and CS majors take up careers in every imaginable field. The Department was formed in 1994 and our graduates have enjoyed excellent job placements over the last fifteen years, both within Pakistan and internationally. Many have chosen to make their own successful companies. The acceptance of our graduates to top MS and PhD programmes abroad has also been excellent – just this year, students who have graduated can boast acceptances from Oxford, Cambridge, UIUC, Cornell, UT Dallas, Stony Brook and UC San Diego amongst others.

* The medium of instruction at LUMS is English for all degree programmes offered. Assessments are accepted in English only.

Information technology in Pakistan is a growing and rising industry that has a lot of potential. Matters relating to the IT industry are overseen and regulated by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the Government of Pakistan.[1][2] The IT industry is regarded as a successful sector of Pakistan economically, even in financial crisis.[3]. The first IT policy and implementation strategy was approved under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS, then Federal Minister of Science & technology, in August 2000 which laid the foundations of the development of this sector [4][5], [6],[7] A 15 year tax holiday was approved to promote the IT industry in 2001 which has the grown from $ 30 million to over $ 3 billion during the last 16 years[8]. A nationwide programme to train teachers was initiated by Intel in March 2002 in Pakistan on the request of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman which has resulted in the training of 220,000 teachers across 70 districts at no cost to the government [9]The government of Pakistan has given numerous incentives to IT investors in the country during the last decade, this resulted in the development of the IT sector. In the years 2003-2005 the country's IT exports saw a rise of about fifty percent and amounted a total of about 48.5 million USD. The World Economic Forum, assessing the development of Information and Communication Technology in the country ranked Pakistan 111th among 144 countries in the Global Information Technology report of 2014.[10]

As of 2011, Pakistan has over 20 million internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in internet penetration.[11] Overall, it has the 27th largest population of internet users in the world. In the fiscal year 2012-2013, the Government of Pakistan aims to spend Rs. 4.6 billion on information technology projects, with emphasis on e-government, human resource and infrastructure development.[12]

E-government[edit]

Main article: E-Government in Pakistan

The Government of Pakistan has attached great importance to information technology, as part of its efforts to develop an "information age" in the country.[13] In this regard, an elaborate national IT policy was formulated under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS in 2000, then Federal Minister of Science & technology[14]. Through a focus on the technological development of information technology, the government aims to increase productivity in the public sector, improve the standards of IT infrastructure in the country and use it as a management tool for the promotion of good governance in general. There has been remarkable progress in creating effective computerised e-government systems in Pakistan for major departments such as police, law enforcement agencies and district administration.[13] The National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) has also introduced computerised registration systems for issuing important documents such as national identity cards, passports, and permanent residency cards. IT has also been critically important in improving work procedures of the civil service and other government-related fields.[13]

According to a study published by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), Pakistan has been highly exposed to information technology while pursuing the concepts of e-governance and e-commerce:

Pakistan's communication system is also reliable. This has now fully graduated into the email, Internet and IT culture perse. The country is fast exploring the brave new world of information technology and keenly assimilating the requirements of e-government and e-commerce. Information technology has opened a new business frontier for Pakistan. The government is assigning high priority to information technology both in terms of policy limelight and resource allocation.

— United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 2002[15]

Local-language computing[edit]

There is a growing demand for software and programme development in local languages. Computer software such as InPage were amongst the first computer programmes developed in Pakistan that specifically catered to creating pages in various local languages using local scripts and fonts.

Urdu[edit]

Further information: Urdu Informatics, Urdu keyboard, and Urdu localization of open-source software

The Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing conducts research and development in linguistic and computational aspects of Urdu, as well as other languages of Pakistan, in areas such as speech processing, computational linguistics and script processing.[16]

Sindhi[edit]

Sindhi has also been digitized to make it easier to publish Sindhi newspapers, magazines and books. InPage also offers support for Sindhi with the proper fonts and ligatures which makes it easier for people to type in the Sindhi language without any difficulty.

Software development in Pakistan[edit]

Software development is one of the fastest growing fields in Pakistan. The government has initiated numerous programs to encourage software development and exports. Pakistani IT companies are developing software for use in different types of businesses and services. Locally made software packages are cheaply available for implementation in schools, hospitals, supermarkets and other businesses. Large control systems such as ERPs are also developed for use in large organizations which manufacture textiles, pharmaceuticals, food and beverages, etc. Also, the increasing use of Android smartphones, tablets and Apple iPads has given a great boost to the mobile applications development industry. Experts can easily develop these applications at home, with very low capital investment, as a personal computer and an Internet connection are the only things required to begin. Educational institutes have also begun offering diplomas and short-courses in software and applications development for young people.

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