Essay/Term paper: Independence in latin america
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"Independence of Latin America"
In the 1800's, Latin American countries won independence, but many new independent countries had trouble creating strong, stable governments. The Creoles played an important role in the independent movements. These countries won their independence through strong leaders and many other factors. As soon as these countries won their independence from Spain and Portugal, they did not want to return the way they did. Many countries revolted, we even find out that the United States had something to do with it. Behind many of these countries' independence, stands and list of causes and effects.
One of the first causes of the Independence of Latin America was the Creoles. Since Spain had rule over the Latin American countries, the Creoles were one of many groups that led the struggle for Latin Independence. Another group, who were known as the Mestizos, revolted against Spain in Peru. Many of these Indians remembered how the Spanish conquered them over 300 years ago. It didn't last much because their leader Tupac Amaru was executed, but the slaves saw independence as a way of freedom. These groups were not the only cause of the Independence. Another cause that led to the independence of Latin America, was the French Revolution. With these enlightenment ideas, the people of Latin America were able to have their own government that protected their interest and gave them freedom. These countries liked the idea of having natural rights, liberty, and property, as any country would. They gained a little bit of more freedom when Napoleon conquered Spain. But, that did not last much because he was defeated and all of the boundries had to be redrawn. This only leads to revolt from the Latin American countries. Among many of the small causes stands discrimination and slavery.
Now, Latin America was made up many countries and each of them got their independence separately, not as a whole. Each of these countries had leaders that led them to their own independence. These countries included Haiti, South America, Mexico, and Brazil. Tousaint L' Overture led and uprising of African slaves in 1791, forcing the French out of Haiti - making Haiti the first Latin American colony to achieve independence. Jose de san Martin worked to liberate Argentina and Chile from Spanish rule in the years 1816 to 1818. Simon Bolivar defeated Spanish forces between 1819 and 1825, liberating Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Miguel Hidalgo, a priest, began a rebellion against Spanish rule in Mexico in 1810, but the uprising failed. Mexico later achieved its independence in 1821.
The result of these causes of course, was that the Latin American countries did gain their independence. Many nations had trouble building stable governments though. There were many divisions, socially and economically. A good thing that happened was that slavery ended. Under Spanish rule, colonist had little experience with representative government. Within each country, power struggles often erupted between rival groups. This is when military leaders known as caudillos seized power and ruled as dictators. They only held power for a short time. By the late 1800's, most governments became oligarchies, under an oligarchy, a small elite has ruling power. These ruling groups divided into conservatives and liberals. Conservatives wanted to preserve the old social order of church. However, the liberals wanted to limit the influence of the church. They hoped to reduce the gap between rich and poor. Many civil wars also erupted as a result of Latin Independence. This caused chaos and a need for reform.
The Independence of Latin America wasn"t the only event taking place in the world. We see that other events were taking place and that the French Revolution was one of those events that influenced that Independence of Latin America. There are many possible solutions that would help Latin America in this chaotic time period. One is that they could do away with their class system, this would create equality for everyone. They could also explore their resources and make some big trades, like Europe and The United States was doing. These possible solutions would strengthen the economy for a better Latin America.
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The Independence Of Latin America Essay
The Independence of Latin America
The Independence of Latin America was a process caused by years of injustices, discriminations, and abuse, from the Spanish Crown upon the inhabitants of Latin America. Since the beginning the Spanish Crown used the Americas as a way to gain riches and become greater in power internationally. Three of the distinct causes leading Latin America to seek independence from Spain, were that Spain was restricting Latin America from financial growth, (this included restrictions from the Spain on international trade, tax burden, and laws which only allowed the Americas to buy from Spain), The different social groups within Latin America, felt the pressure of the reforms being implicated on them by the Spanish Crown. They wanted freedom to decide how to run their home without the crown deciding for them what they should do. The Wars of Independence in Latin America, The Bourbon Reform, was one form of reforms pushed by the people of Latin America towards Independence. "The Bourbon bureaucracy engineered unprecedented campaigns to extirpate the vices of the People and to inculcate in them the new virtues of hard work, sobriety, and proper public propriety" (Voekl, 183). Spain used the Americas as a way to rise from economic low and to take their riches from them. "The role of America remained the same to consume Spanish exports, and to produce minerals and a few tropical products. In these terms comercio libre was bound to increase dependency, reverting to a primitive idea of colonies and a crude division of labour after a long period during which inertia and neglect had allowed a measure of more autonomous growth" "…With the result that Spain itself was seen as an obstacle to growth. Secondly, in one of the great ironies of Spanish, the elite was divided by on their decision to push towards revolution within. Those creoles pushing towards revolution to free themselves from Spanish rule felt that the Spanish crown was only abusing, discriminating and holding them back form growing economically. The elite felt they were not part of a revolution seeing themselves only as people who were All those part of the social context of Latin America, felt differently within Indians, on side of the Spanish King, though great abuse fell through. "Nonetheless, the Indians of New Spain (and elsewhere) enjoyed a set of legal privileges, exemptions, and protection which significantly interferes with their complete integration into colonial society, and kept them in a legal bubble of tutelage ruptured only with the advent of independent Mexican nationhood in the third decade of the nineteenth century (Van Young, 154). The point here is that where these and other legal and administrative remedies were applied in favor of the Indians of colonial New Spain, they were applied in the kings' name. Furthermore, religious and civic ritual of all kinds constantly stressed the centrality of the Spanish king to the colonial...
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