Unemployment: Keynesian Ideas and Fiscal Policy Essay
4121 Words17 Pages
Fiscal policy, as we know it today, is meant to mitigate unemployment and stabilize the economy through aggregate demand. Despite dismal unemployment numbers, politicians and policy-makers continue to use and be optimistic about the effectiveness of fiscal policy in this regard. Policy as we have seen over the past five years has had dismal effect on the unemployment numbers we are seeing today. It seems we need a policy that will tackle lagging aggregate demand as well as the employment problems. A direct-job creation effort will work to create the differences in aggregate demand and effective demand creating equilibrium and filling the void that the current Keynesian fiscal policy leaves.
The origins of many ideas…show more content…
Keynes idea is that there is a spending multiplier model that shows that $1 introduced into the economy flows and circulates into smaller and smaller pieces; ultimately yielding a final aggregate impact number that is much larger than the original amount spent. This model can be applied to each variable of aggregate demand in order to increase the GDP. (GDP=AD=C+I+G+X)
In this model if government spending increases by $1, half of that dollar will circulate in the market, and the other half of that 50 cents or 25 cents with flow into the economy, in a continual process. That first 50 cents in additional consumption is the Marginal Propensity to Consume factor (MPC) . With that MPC of 50 cents, the multiplier of any new round of marginal spending, based on Keynes model would be, $1/ (1-mpc) or $1-.5) =$2 of increased spending. Therefore, $2 is created by each dollar introduced into the economy. Essentially if $400billion put into the economy through government spending brings back a rise in income of $600 billion, then the multiple would be 1.5 (Keynes, 1936, 151-174).
With greater aggregated demand there is more demand for goods and services (GDP) at any given price level. So, with greater demand for goods and services, there is more need for firms to produce them, and therefore unemployment would fall.
A number of moves can be taken in the event of a recession to aid in recovery, the typical fiscal
Не важно, сколько посетителей стоят в очереди, - секретарь всегда бросит все дела и поспешит поднять трубку. Беккер отбил шестизначный номер. Еще пара секунд, и его соединили с больничным офисом.